字彙筆記 – de

英文單字這麼多,用字根字首的規則可以做有系統的歸納整理,減輕一點負擔。話雖如此,有的字根字首實在很莫名其妙,比方說”de-“, 為什麼有時候是(+)有時是(-),而且de這部分紅寶書真的錯誤百出,背到後來真的很火,於是決定把他弄個清楚!

多番查詢後,de – 有以下幾種可能
– removal, reversal, departure, away, down, from, entirely/completely, out, down, without
removal 去除: defrost, dethron, defoliate (de- + folium “leaf” = 使落葉), demoralize, dehydrate

reversal 相反: decode, decipher,decompose, desegregate (廢除(學校等的)種族隔離), detect (de- “un-, off” + tegere “to cover”), desecrate (opposite of (con)secrate = 褻瀆)

departure, away 遠離: decease, decamp, deflect (偏離,轉向), demise (=decease) ,deplete, denude (away+ to strip), deluge (away + wash = 大洪水)

down: degrade, deject (“to cast down,” from de- “down” + -icere;form of jacere “to throw.” 使灰心沮喪), demolish (破壞,拆除), denounce, demean (= degrade), depose, depreciate, depict (down + to paint), depress, deride, demote (de+[pro]mote 也可以看做反義), decry, decadence (de- apart, down + to fall = 衰微; 墮落), deciduous (de + to fall), decrepit (de + to crack, break = 衰老的; 東倒西歪的; 破舊的), deduce (de – down + to lead = 演繹,推斷), devour (de + swallow = 狼吞虎嚥), descent, despicable (de+ to look, scope), desultory (de – away, down + to jump, leap), detraction (貶低,誹謗)

away, from: delegate (代表,授權), derive (from + river/stream = 起源,衍生), deceive (de- from+ to take), detain (de- from, away + hold = 拘留, 扣留)

entirely/thoroughly: deport (thoroughly, formally + to carry, bear oneself), defraud, deliberate (entirely + to balance, weight = consider well), deman, demonstrate (de + show, to point out), deplore (de- “entirely” + plorare “weep, cry out.” = 哀悼,譴責), deprive / deprivative (剝奪), derelict (荒廢的,被遺棄的人…), desiccate (from de- “thoroughly” + siccare “to dry” = 使乾燥,脫水)

completely: delineate (de + to draw line), denote (表示,指示意義), deprave (crooked)

out: design / designate

without, off, away: despair, desperate, deviant (de- off + way = 越軌的,超出常軌的), devious (不正直的),

away, apart: detriment (away + to rub, wear = 損傷), deracinate (de-away, apart + root = 根除,杜絕), derogate (away + ask, propose, question = 貶低; 誹謗; 損害 [也很像de- down]), deface, default (這個字很有趣,我們用電腦用習慣了,都覺得default是原本的設定,但是字義其實是不履行,違約,拖欠 [early 13c., “failure, failure to act,” from O.Fr. defaute (12c.) “fault, defect, failure, culpability, lack, privation,” from V.L. *defallita “a deficiency or failure,” pp. of *defallere , from L. de- “away” + fallere “to deceive, to cheat; to put wrong, to lead astray, cause to be mistaken; to escape notice of, be concealed from.” ]),detach, detergent, detour
from: decline (from + to bend)

de字首的單字非常非常多,紅寶書拆的字首有的是意思錯了(比方說deprecate -反對、輕視,紅寶裡寫de去除 +prec[價值]+ate= 去掉價值;但是真正應該是de – away + to pray st.),有的是非字根(比方說descry-看見, 辨認出 ->並非de+scry[分辨];應該是from O.Fr. descrier “publish,” from L. describere, 再挖深一點則是from de- “down” + scribere “write” 也和紅寶說的不同),最好能抽空自己都整理過會比較清楚。同樣很混亂的還有很多字首,像是des, dis, in 等等,加油!



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